Biotechnology refers to the use of organisms or substances produced by them, in order to modify or improve the environment in which we live. It is often used in medicine, as well as science of food and agriculture. Although our understanding of biotechnology has advanced rapidly in recent years, it has been in existence since prehistoric times, making it one of the oldest Sciences. Early progress realized in the cultivation of products for food, as well as in animal husbandry, there is so much that you can be said of developments in biotechnology. The long history of biotechnology has been witness to events such as the understanding that the fermentation of the fruit juice could be transformed into wine, and that the yeast cells make the bread dough rise. Modern biotechnology has given rise to the development of drugs that save lives, and other advances for the well-being of men, in the way how we live our lives.

One of the most famous events and most beneficial in the history of science and technology was the discovery of penicillin in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. For our time, biotechnology has four major types of applications. The first is on health, and this is often the first thing that comes to mind when most people think about biotechnology. Production and testing of new medicines is an important part of this apart, as well as the development in fields such as gene therapy, which involves the use of genetic material to treat and cure diseases at the cellular level. The studies carried out to determine the genetic makeup of a person affects their response to drugs that constitute the field of pharmacogenomics. Biotechnology has also found numerous applications in agriculture.

One of the most promising benefits to agriculture has been the increase in the yield of crops through genetic engineering and transplantation. The nutritional content of food also can be improved with these methods, so as the flavor and texture of foods. Plants can even be designed to be more resistant to pathogens and insect predators. This can reduce the need for pesticides and also prevents the deforestation, which is usually done to make safer foods consumed, as well as make your less expensive production. Even not related to health and agriculture industries can benefit from biotechnology. Some organisms can be designed and adapted to restore or recover the environments that have been contaminated. Waste products and contaminants can be removed and broken down by these modified organisms. Marine environments can benefit especially from this branch of biotechnology, because of the many dangers caused by the man who is seen under the environment.